This atlas presents macroscopic descriptions, macro cross section pictures, general characteristics and identification keys of 335 wood species currently introduced in the European timber market from all over the world. Overall 292 different genera are represented and CITES-listed timbers are also included. Macroscopic descriptions are based on a recently proposed list of macroscopic features for wood identification. Macroscopic features and their codes are defined and illustrated in the atlas. Wood descriptions also include information about natural durability, physical and mechanical properties, end uses, environmental sustainability and possible related misleading commercial names. Furthermore, each genus is described in terms of number of species, geographical distribution and main commercial timbers, and details are given about to what extent timbers within the genus can be typically identified through macroscopic and microscopic analysis, if any. The atlas will be a valuable guide for all agents in charge for timber verification, those involved in the European Timber Regulation enforcement and CITES inspections, as well as wood scientists, foresters, wood sellers, wood restorers, and any wood worker and wood passionate interested in a fast and reliable tool for wood identification.

Flavio Ruffinatto, Alan Crivellaro

Atlas of Macroscopic Wood Identification

with a Special Focus on Timbers Used in Europe

and CITES-listed Species


  1. Includes all the main woods used in Europe and many lesser-known timbers

  2. Not only macroscopic descriptions, but lots of other information about each wood

  3. Describes to what extent timbers within one genus can be identified through macroscopic and microscopic analysis

  4. Electronic identification key freely available to download

2019, X, 400 p. 375 illus. in color.


Link to identification key:

http://tiny.cc/macrokeyapp











Find out more:

http://www.springer.com/9783030235659