This book presents a list of morphological and anatomical characteristics designed to combine anatomical features with ecological relevant plant traits. It includes dicotyledon trees, shrubs, dwarf shrubs, herbs, succulents, lianas, hydrophytes of any growth form from annual to perennial, with heights from one centimeter to 100 meters from any taxonomic units. Here we present an image based codification system for xylem, phloem, cortex and periderm anatomy as seen in stems. The list is based on anatomical images from samples we collect- ed from living plants, prepared on double stained slides (astrablue and safranin) which differentiate lignified (red stained) and unlignified (blue stained) cell walls. Plants have been collected in subtropical, arid, temperate, boreal and arctic zones in the northern hemisphere as Sahel, Sahara, Canary Islands, as well as in temperate, boreal arctic zones of Eurasia and North America. The principal xylem features are in accordance with the “IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification”.


In summary, this book presents a list of morphological and anatomical characteristics designed to combine anatomical stem features with ecological traits. It is an anatomical base for ecological, taxonomical and physiological studies.

Alan Crivellaro, Fritz H. Schweingruber

Stem Anatomical Features of Dicotyledons

Xylem, Phloem, Cortex and Periderm Characteristics

for Ecological and Taxonomical Analyses


  1. An image-based list of almost 400 codified plant and stem anatomical features

  2. Includes trees, shrubs and perennial and annual Dicotyledon herbs

  3. Presents more than 600 color illustrations of double stained sections

  4. PDF freely downloadable by cliking on the cover (left)


Download the list of features:

Stem Anatomical Features of Dicotyledons.xls


Book order information:

You can order the book from the publisher Kessel Publishing House

(http://www.forestrybooks.com; price: 34.- € plus mailing expenses) by sending an email to nkessel(at)web.de indicating your full postal address.